在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

2020-07-22 13:03 栏目:经验之谈 来源:网络整理 查看()
1 前言

本实践案例中,我们首先会搭建和启动一条substrate链,再通过MetaMask这款著名的以太坊钱包浏览器插件,通过自定义RPC的方式,接入我们搭建好的substrate链。

然后我们会在remix这款智能合约在线IDE上的完成ERC20智能合约的开发、编译、部署、调试。remix将通过Injected Web3的方式接入我们的MetaMask钱包,借助MetaMask实现和substrate链的交互。

2 前置准备

2.1 substrate链启动

由于Substrate[1]的runtime没有集成EVM,需要使用Parity另外一个项目:Frontier[2]。Frontier是Substrate的以太坊兼容层。

在这个项目中,增加了pallet-evm、pallet-ethereum、rpc-ethereum,可以最大程度的模拟以太坊的环境,以便可以无缝对接当前以太坊生态里面DApp及第三方工具,如remix、metamask等。

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

2.1.1 安装

$ git clone [email protected]:paritytech/frontier.git

$ cd frontier

(master)$ git log
commit fcea97281661f0a0a4c28e46edbfb1238043471e
Author: Wei Tang <[email protected]>
Date:   Tue Jul 14 13:25:48 2020 +0200

(master)$ git submodule init
子模组 'vendor/ethereum' (https://github.com/rust-blockchain/ethereum) 已为路径 'vendor/ethereum' 注册
子模组 'vendor/evm' (https://github.com/rust-blockchain/evm) 已为路径 'vendor/evm' 注册
子模组 'vendor/substrate' (https://github.com/paritytech/substrate) 已为路径 'vendor/substrate' 注册

(master)$ git submodule update
正克隆到 'vendor/ethereum'...
处理 delta 中: 100% (930/930), done.
子模组路径 'vendor/ethereum':检出 '4fdd3c8ac849f91f5352bc7dfc189144a09aac1e'
正克隆到 'vendor/evm'...
子模组路径 'vendor/evm':检出 '84013f3ea23e436541f409c717134dd1536143de'
正克隆到 'vendor/substrate'...
fatal: 引用不是一个树:b36fc2c849ae0cba434bb3ce82e0a4dda5bcbe7a
无法在子模组路径 'vendor/substrate' 中检出 'b36fc2c849ae0cba434bb3ce82e0a4dda5bcbe7a'

# 获取子模块有报错,单独clone substrate工程来解决
$ cd vendor
$ /bin/rm -rf substrate
$ git clone [email protected]:paritytech/substrate.git

# 注意:这里不能切换到最新的tag(v2.0.0-rc4),编译会报错,采用当前最新的master分支,可以正常编译frontier
[[email protected]:~/frontier/vendor/substrate] (master)$ git log
commit 9b5a9cb9056f8ab049837d30b500fca78a6c362c
Author: Shawn Tabrizi <[email protected]>
Date:   Thu Jul 16 02:21:15 2020 +0200

2.1.2 添加个人账号

在substrate frontier链的创世配置里面,内建我们在MetaMask上的自有账号,并初始化配置上足够的ETH数量,以便我们开发测试的需要。

•拷贝个人测试账号地址

0x888a0bF014d1D6334002261BaC34a16f5Ce963ac

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•修改frontier/template/node/src/chain_spec.rs,添加以下内容:

+  29 use std::str::FromStr;

! 141         let built_in_evm_account =
! 142             H160::from_str("888a0bF014d1D6334002261BaC34a16f5Ce963ac").unwrap();
! 143         let mut evm_accounts = BTreeMap::new();
! 144         //let ten: u128 = 10;
! 145         evm_accounts.insert(
! 146             built_in_evm_account,
! 147             evm::GenesisAccount {
! 148                 nonce: 0.into(),
! 149                 balance: (2018030320150719 as u128 * 10_u128.pow(18)).into(),    // 设置账户初始ETH余额,注意ETH有18位小数
! 150                 storage: BTreeMap::new(),                                 
! 151                 code: WASM_BINARY.to_vec(),
! 152             },  
! 153         );

2.1.3 编译

$ cargo build --release

2.1.4 运行

(master)$ ./target/release/frontier-template-node purge-chain --dev
Are you sure to remove "/root/.local/share/frontier-template-node/chains/dev/db"? [y/N]: y
"/root/.local/share/frontier-template-node/chains/dev/db" did not exist.

(master)$ ./target/release/frontier-template-node  --dev --ws-external --rpc-external --rpc-cors=all
2020-07-18 22:59:28 Substrate Node
2020-07-18 22:59:28  version 2.0.0-dev-fcea972-x86_64-linux-gnu
2020-07-18 22:59:28  by Parity Technologies <[email protected]>, 2017-2020
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Chain specification: Development
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Node name: stimulating-hand-5352
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Role: AUTHORITY
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Database: RocksDb at /root/.local/share/frontier-template-node/chains/dev/db
2020-07-18 22:59:28   Native runtime: node-frontier-template-1 (node-frontier-template-1.tx1.au1)
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Initializing Genesis block/state (state: 0x1e15…857d, header-hash: 0xa26e…22df)
2020-07-18 22:59:28  Loading GRANDPA authority set from genesis on what appears to be first startup.
2020-07-18 22:59:29   Loaded block-time = 6000 milliseconds from genesis on first-launch
2020-07-18 22:59:29  Highest known block at #0
2020-07-18 22:59:29 Using default protocol ID "sup" because none is configured in the chain specs
2020-07-18 22:59:29   Local node identity is: 12D3KooWMgcWheT7cvvpaaKmqNLVPRpAkGLR9V1M7pfs43DxZU6c (legacy representation: QmRN3jaSxZV5dMk1P5tm1CB9oud8pU8SGZvrUFfuS9dNMQ)
2020-07-18 22:59:29  Prometheus server started at 127.0.0.1:9615
2020-07-18 22:59:30  Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xa26e0b7f2abed8a4bcf87ca45d20d7628cf22225dd522385e7b49ee6c30522df
2020-07-18 22:59:30  Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xd3558be2df939b94ba94d82ded332216b0b06a55596d0a61a858aeaf7acc16c4; parent_hash: 0xa26e…22df; extrinsics (1): [0xead1…ac1b]]
2020-07-18 22:59:30  Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x8aa38d1228213371249ff83404bd8576e3e0bce6e120f93a9fe08ec2dfdc2d86, previously 0xd3558be2df939b94ba94d82ded332216b0b06a55596d0a61a858aeaf7acc16c4.
2020-07-18 22:59:30  Imported #1 (0x8aa3…2d86)
2020-07-18 22:59:34  Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x8aa3…2d86), finalized #0 (0xa26e…22df), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2020-07-18 22:59:36  Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x8aa38d1228213371249ff83404bd8576e3e0bce6e120f93a9fe08ec2dfdc2d86
2020-07-18 22:59:36  Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x570be59726cf2018fab9e7bae77208a990921291fe8164bbc1df253f8142d3f6; parent_hash: 0x8aa3…2d86; extrinsics (1): [0xec7f…0d17]]
2020-07-18 22:59:36  Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0xe9831c239f29745d79b0e72cc26c0db19ce4d0c7712a32dae4cc60f8ad538551, previously 0x570be59726cf2018fab9e7bae77208a990921291fe8164bbc1df253f8142d3f6.
2020-07-18 22:59:36  Imported #2 (0xe983…8551)

2.2 MetaMask接入frontier链

2.2.1 配置自定义RPC接入

这里ChainID填42,源于runtime中的定义:

parameter_types! {
    pub const EVMModuleId: ModuleId = ModuleId(*b"py/evmpa");
    pub const ChainId: u64 = 42; 
}

impl evm::Trait for Runtime {
    type ModuleId = EVMModuleId;
    type FeeCalculator = FixedGasPrice;
    type ConvertAccountId = HashTruncateConvertAccountId<BlakeTwo256>;
    type Currency = Balances;
    type Event = Event;
    type Precompiles = (); 
    type ChainId = ChainId;
}

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

2.2.2 查看账户余额

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

2.2.3 开启Gas控制高级选项

开启该选项后,以便我们随意配置gas limit和gas price:

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

2.3 remix接入MetaMask

•使用Injected Web3建立与MetaMask账号的连接

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

我们看到我们创建的账号已经成功接入remix,接下来,我们便可以进行ERC20合约的开发和部署了。

3 合约开发&部署

3.1 智能合约编写

我们要编写两个合约,其中SafeMath.sol是一个算数运算防溢出的安全库,xyc.sol是一个ERC20智能合约。

3.1.1 SafeMath.sol

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

library SafeMath {
    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 c = a + b;
        require(c >= a, "SafeMath: addition overflow");
        return c;
    }

    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return sub(a, b, "SafeMath: subtraction overflow");
    }

    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b <= a, errorMessage);
        uint256 c = a - b;
        return c;
    }

    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        require(c / a == b, "SafeMath: multiplication overflow");
        return c;
    }

    function p(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return p(a, b, "SafeMath: pision by zero");
    }

    function p(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b > 0, errorMessage);
        uint256 c = a / b;
        return c;
    }

    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return mod(a, b, "SafeMath: modulo by zero");
    }

    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        require(b != 0, errorMessage);
        return a % b;
    }
}

3.1.2 xyc.sol

pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

import "./SafeMath.sol";

abstract contract ERC20 {
   function totalSupply() public virtual view returns (uint256);
   function balanceOf(address owner) public virtual view returns (uint256);
   function transfer(address to, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool);
   function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool);
   function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool);
   function allowance(address owner, address spender) public virtual view returns (uint256);
   event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);
   event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

contract xyc is ERC20 {

    using SafeMath for uint256;

    string name = "XuanYuan Coin";
    string symbol = "xyc";
    uint8 decimals;
    uint256 private _totalSupply;
    mapping(address => uint256) private _balances;
    mapping(address => mapping(address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    constructor(uint256 myTotalSupply, uint8 mydecimals) public {
        _totalSupply = myTotalSupply;
        decimals = mydecimals;
        _balances[msg.sender] = myTotalSupply;
    }

   function totalSupply() public override view returns (uint256) {
       return _totalSupply;
   }

   function balanceOf(address _owner) public override view returns (uint256) {
       return _balances[_owner];
   }

   function transfer(address to, uint256 value) public override returns (bool) {
       require(to != address(0), "ERC20 ERROR: transfer from zero address");
       require(value <= _balances[msg.sender]);
       require(_balances[to] + value >= _balances[to]);

       _balances[msg.sender] = _balances[msg.sender].sub(value);
       _balances[to] = _balances[to].add(value);

       emit Transfer(msg.sender, to, value);

       return true;
   }

   function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 value) public override returns (bool) {
       require(to != address(0));
       require(value <= _balances[from]);
       require(value <= _allowances[from][msg.sender]);
       require(_balances[to] + value >= _balances[to]);

       _balances[from] = _balances[from].sub(value);
       _balances[to] = _balances[to].add(value);
       _allowances[from][msg.sender] = _allowances[from][msg.sender].sub(value);

       emit Transfer(from, to, value);

       return true;
   }

   function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public override returns (bool) {
       require(value <= _balances[msg.sender]);
       _allowances[msg.sender][spender] = value;
       emit Approval(msg.sender, spender, value);
       return true;
   }

   function allowance(address _owner, address spender) public override view returns (uint256) {
       return _allowances[_owner][spender];
   }

   event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);
   event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

3.2 智能合约编译

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

智能合约编译成功,接下来我们就将已经开发完成的Solidity ERC20智能合约部署到Substrate链上。

3.3 智能合约部署

•选择要部署的合约,填写构造方法中的发行总量和精度两个参数,点击transact按钮

注:当前版本需要在弹出的MetaMask对话框上,设置很大的gas limit值(4294967295)才能部署成功:(

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

4 合约功能测试

通过remix完成对ERC20合约的功能测试。

4.1 查看发行量&余额

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

可见所有发行代币都归属于合约部署方地址。

4.2 转账测试

•给账户2:0x8A832874304Be72b299C0ED96f22B11311c9051C,转账1000.00 XYC,查看账户1地址XYC代币数量为:9000.00,符合预期

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•在MetaMask上添加自定义代币

合约地址:0xfE2dF1EE3783eBD46481e32d849acB49ec5004Bf

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•代币发行方地址所剩代币为:9000.00 XYC

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•代币接收方地址代币数量为:1000.00 XYC

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

4.3 授权代理转账测试

•为账户2转账ETH,用于支付gas费

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•用户1授权用户2可代理转账的代币数量为2000.00 XYC

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•查看用户2所能授权转账用户1的XYC代币

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•用户2代理用户1给用户3转账2000.00 XYC

成功转账后,查看到用户2所能授权转账用户1的XYC代币数量为0

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•查看到账户3上XYC代币余额

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

•再次查看账户1上的代币余额

在Substrate链上跑Solidity ERC20智能合约

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